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Friday, 10 November 2017

Intel Core I7

Inter Core i7 Processor

                           - Done By Kamal

What is Intel Core i7?

Intel Core i7 is a name that the company Intel uses for the computer processors it makes for high-end desktop and laptop computers and tablets. Intel uses this name for the fastest processors that they think will be used to build the most powerful consumer devices. The 'Core' part of the name, which refers to the processor's core, has been used by Intel since 2006, but the first Core i7 processor was released 3 years later in 2009.
There are different types of Core i7 processor. The name does not name a type. Instead, it is the name for all of the fast processors that Intel thinks should be sold to consumers. Intel uses two other "Core i-" names for its processors for consumers: "Core i5" and "Core i3." The "Core i5" processors are mostly as fast as i7 processors, but lack the Hyper Threading technology which allows each core to be used twice simultaneously giving the impression of doubling the cores.

The Architecture Diagram

As stated before, the Core i7 has been completely modularized.  The two main modules are the Core and Uncore.  The Core controls all the cores while the Uncore controls the L3 cache, memory controller, and QPI links.  However, each module receives its own clock so that all the different modules can run independently of each other.

Core - The core portion is the location of all the cores of the processor.  This is the where the CPU frequency comes into play.

Uncore - While the Uncore technically includes the QPI, the QPI is able to run independent of the Uncore settings.  The Uncore includes the L3 cache and memory controller.  The Uncore also controls what memory speeds are available to use with the processor.  The Uncore must be at least double (2x) of the memory frequency due to memory being DDR.

QPI -  The QPI is the connection interface between processor and the rest of the system.  It runs independent of the other modules in the processor.  It also transmits and receives per clock, so hence this module is rated in transfers per second instead of frequency.

To let everything run independently, there is a single base clock used throughout the processor.

New Features
The Core i7 processors have some great features that the previous Core 2 processors did not have.

Modular Design - The Core i7 processors have been modularized to help Intel create different versions without re-working the whole processor.  This means 8-core processors, 6-channel memory, and larger cache processors are all possibilities.

HyperThreading Returns - Intel brought back HyperThreading to allow these processors to utilize up to 8 threads simultaneously.  HyperThreading is the technology that allows a single core to emulate two cores by using unused core hardware to run a separate thread. Intel claims that adding HT allows for more performance without adding almost no extra hardware.

Integrated Memory Controller - Intel has placed all memory controlling hardware directly into the processor.  This means more bandwidth and lower latencies by bypassing the FSB.  Also, much more memory is supported due to the triple-channel.

Quick Path Interconnect - The QPI is the replacement for the FSB.  With much higher bandwidth and point to point connection, it scales much better with multiple processors then previous generations of hardware.  Also, look to see greater performance with dual and triple SLI/CFX setups due to increased bandwidth.

Low-Power Modes - If all the cores are not active with a thread, the core itself will be shut down and operate in a sleep-like state.  In this state, the core operates at almost 0 watts.  There are no perceived delays as the core is able to instantly wake.

Turbo-Mode - The processor is able to self-overclock by changing the multiplier by two speed bins.  It will self-overclock if the processor senses that there is enough thermal and power headroom to overclock without straining itself.  Usually this happens when there are cores in sleep state due to lack of multiple threads.  The PCU (Power Control Unit) is advanced enough to know all this and will be very self aware.  Liquid cooling setups may even see higher self-overclocks due to this.

  1. Affordable prices for being a quad-core
  2. Built by a well-known, if not top, microprocessor manufacturer
  3. 45nm node technology allows for efficient cooling and overclocking

  4. IMC or integrated memory controller lets the chip connect directly to memory

  5. Four cores allows for handling software that requires lots of computations (some newer games will see increased performance)
  1. Will only work with DDR3 Memory, meaning for people upgrading from DDR2 will have to get a whole new motherboard

  2. New sockets different from the ever popular LGA775 socket (Core 2 Duo's used this) will again mean getting a new motherboard

  3. Not a whole lot of software will require multi-threading, meaning for the average person - there won't be much of a performance gain from a dual core.

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